MS Knowledge base



Accelerated Orthodontics

Conventional orthodontic treatment can take anywhere from 1.5 to 2 years to achieve the desired results. Accelerated orthdontics (also known as "wilcodontics")can help straighten teeth with just 4 - 8 months. This is particularly appealing to adults who prefer not to have to wear appliances such as braces for extended periods of time. How it's done: The technique involves a surgery to of the gums to help prepare the bone in which the teeth sit and the region around the teeth to be more receptive to pressure applied by devices such as braces aimed at changing the position of the teeth. It is a simple outpatient procedure which is performed under local anesthetic and involves the removal of small amount of bone from the jaw and is carried out by an orthdontist.

Adenoidectomy (adenoid removal)

Adenoidectomy is the surgical removal of adenoids which are small lumps of lymphoid tissue located at the back of the nose. This is usually done if the adenoids become swollen or enlarged due to a bacterial or viral infection or due to allergies and if these are not easily treated through non-surgical means. This procedure is sometimes combined with a tonsillectomy which involved the removal of the tonsils. How it's done: The adenoidectomy is usually an outpatient surgical procedure performed by an ENT surgeon and lasting between 30-45 minutes. It is performed under general anestheria.

Aerodigestive care

Aerodigestive care treats children who have trouble swallowing or breathing, related gastrointestinal disorders or chronic cough and recurrent pneumonia . The underlying causes are abnormalities in the upper airway. Since this is usually a complex disorder, it requires a multidisciplinary approach with treatment depending on the underlying factors. Medication as well as surgical approaches might be necessary.

Aesthetic Tooth Whitening

Tooth whitening is done for cosmetic reasons and is a common procedure. It is also known as "tooth bleaching" and are used to lighten teeth that have been stained or discolored owing to food, beverages (coffee, tea, soda), medications, tobacco usage or other factors. How it's done: Dentist-managed bleaching treatments may include in-office bleaching, at-home use of bleaching trays at night or during the day, strip-based materials, or a combination of these treatment methods. The choice between the methods and types of products relate to many factors, including the patient's lifestyle, caries history, tooth sensitivity, and discoloration type. For an in-office procedure, the dentist first places a protective coating around the gums. Then a bleaching solution is applied to the teeth and a curing or bleaching light is shone on to the area of application to activate the bleaching agent. The activation process typically takes around an hour. Maximum whitening is usually achieved after 3 such sittings, on average.

Allergy and immunology

Child (paediatric) allergy and immunology treats disorders of the immune system in children. A child who sneezes or coughs frequently or develops skin rashes, stomach cramps or nausea after eating some types of food might be suffering from allergies. Treatment of allergies can help improve the child's quality of life, help them sleep better and perform better at school. Common allergy triggers in children include pollen, insect bites, pet or animal hair of fur, dust or dust mites, mould, smoke, perfume or certain foods such as dairy products, eggs and certain types of nuts. Treatment involves reduction of exposure to allergens, use of antihistamines and deconsgentant medication. When these measures are not effective, immunotherapy (allergy shots) is recommended and is particularly effective for treating allergic rhinitis or allergic asthma.

Antenatal screening blood tests

As part of antenatal care several blood tests maybe conducted depending upon the mothers condition and whether there is any risk of a particular infection or inherited condition. All the tests are done to check for anything that may cause a problem during the pregnancy or after the birth, or to check that the baby is healthy. Some of the tests that maybe done are Full Blood Count, Blood group, Rhesus (Rh) factor, Anaemia, infections and Gestational diabetes

Artificial Intraocular Lens Implantation Surgery

An intraocular lens implant is a synthetic, artificial lens placed inside the eye that replaces the focusing power of a natural lens that is surgically removed, usually as part of cataract surgery

Audiology (Hearing Test)

An audiology is used to measure and test your hearing and is usually recommended by an ENT specialist after a physical examination of the ear and the patient's symptoms suggest hearing loss. There are different types of hearing tests including pure tone audiometry, speech perception and tympanometry. Results are plotted on an audiogram which can help determine what type of hearing loss the patient has. Treatment is then based on the root cause of the hearing loss (see treatment for loss of hearing)

Baby Delivery

A hospital may be able to provide you with a birth plan guide and provide choices, such as un-medicated or medicated labor. The delivery methods may also be determined such as a vaginal delivery or a C-section and post-delivery recovery.

Bridges

A bridge is a fixed replacement for a missing tooth or multiple missing teeth and, as the name suggests, literally "bridges" the gap created by the missing tooth or teeth. It is typically comprised of an artificial tooth fused between 2 crowns (a crown is a hollow cap that fits over a natural tooth or a dental implant) and is created from a precious metal and porcelain. Unlike dentures, a bridge is permanent and cannot be removed. How it's done: Inserting a dental bridge is a multi-step process that requires several repeat visits to the dentist. The dentist will first use a local anesthetic to numb the teeth and gums and then reshape them to accomodate the bridge / crowns. Once done, the dentist will take an impression of the missing teeth and surrounding teeth and then send this to the dental lab to create the final, customized bridge. A temporary bridge is then fitted on using cement. Once the permanent bridge is ready in a few weeks, the dentist will remove the temporary bridge and fit on the new one using a special adhesive while carefully ensuring that the bite and teeth alignment are normal with the new bridge.

Cataract Removal Surgery

Due to aging or other factors such as being present at birth or as a result of physical, drug, or chemical injury if the eyes naturally clear lens becomes clouded, it's called a cataract. Cataract surgery is used to clear up this cloudiness. How it works? The surgery is mainly an outpatient procedure and is done by making a small cut (incision) in the lens. The cloudy lens is then removed or cleaned out and replaced by a clear manmade lens.

Celiac Disease treatment

Celiac disease is caused by foods containing gluten and can cause damage to the lining of the intestines as well as diarrhoea and stomach pain. This is best treated by switching to a gluten-free diet.

Child Vaccination

Vaccination (immunisation) is a simple and effective way of protecting babies and children from a host of infectious diseases some of which are quite dangerous. Vaccination involves exposing the body to small doses of the pathogens (viruses, bacteria) that cause disease. The body responds by producing antibodies which destroy the pathogens. The antibodies stay in the body to protect against any future chances of infection by the very same pathogens. More than one dose of a vaccine might be given to a child in the early years to improve antibody production and ensure long-term protection. Common and essential vaccinations include MMR (protects against mumps, measles, rubella), IPV (protects against polio virus), rotavirus vaccine (protects against rotavirus), DTaP (protects against diptheria, tetanus and pertussis), HBV (protects against hepatitis B), varicella vaccine (protects against chickenpox), Hib (protects against haemophilus influenza type b), MCV4 (protects against 4 strains of bacterial meningitis), PCV (protects against a certain type of bacterial ear infection) and HPV (protects against the human pappilomavirus which can cause cervical cancer and genital warts).

Chin Plastic Surgery

When your chin is proportional to the shape and size of your nose, the face looks attractive. Chin enhancement is a common practice to help improve overall facial symmetry. For those with a weak or receding chin, chin augmentation is used to increase the projection of the chin while those with protruding chins or double chins typically use chin reduction procedures to make the chin look less projected or to make the chin look more refined. Chin augmentation can be achieved using a combination of tissue or fat grafts from other parts of the body or using external implants.

Colon Polyps/Cancer treatment

Colon polyps are small lumps of tissue or cells that form in the inner lining of the colon. They are usually harmless but, in some cases, can develop into cancers. Hence, removal of the polyps before they develop into cancer is recommended. They can be removed quite easily during a simple colonoscopy (using forceps or wire loops), thereby not requiring surgery. However, large polyps might require minimally invasive surgery. If found cancerous, then typical cancer treatment methods like chemotherapy and radiation therapy are necessary and even surgery to remove the affected portion of the colon.

Constipation treatment

If you pass stool less than three times per week, then you are medically considered to be suffering from constipation. This can also cause the stool to be hard and lumpy. It is often caused by poor diet including inadequare consumption of fiber and fluids. This is usually treated through dietary changes but can also be treated using oral laxatives.

Contraceptive advice

Contraception means prevention of pregnancy. There are a number of different methods and it is important to choose one that best meets your needs and circumstances and a doctor can advice you on the considerations accurately when choosing contraception including effectiveness in pregnancy prevention and protection against sexually transmissible infections (STIs)

Cornea Transplant Surgery

The cornea is a clear tissue that covers the front of each eye, light entering the eye first passes through the cornea, then the pupil (the dark spot at the center of the colored iris), and then the lens. The cornea should be transparent in order for vision to be normal. However the cornea can be damaged by a number of problems affecting vision such as Corneal scarring from trauma and infection, Keratoconus (A degenerative condition in which the cornea becomes thin and misshapen) or an Inherited corneal condition How it works? During a cornea transplant, an eye surgeon removes a portion of the cornea and replaces it with a new section of cornea from a donor.

Crowns

A crown is a hollow cap that is used to completely cover a real tooth. It is made from a metal or a combination of metal and porcelain. Crowns can be fitted over a broken, damaged or decayed tooth for protection as well as to enhance aesthetic appearance. Crowns need to be custom-designed to suit each individual's dental anatomy. Since there are no standard "one-size-fits-all" crowns, specific measurements of the patient are required in order to prepare a crown. How it's done: A crown installation process usually is carried out over 2 visits to the dentist. In the first visit, the dentist will simply assess the viability of the crown by examining the teeth. If the tooth in question is damaged, the dentist might even use filings to repair and enlargen that tooth prior to placing a crown on as to enable it to support the crown. Once done, an impression is taken of the tooth to create a mould which can be used to cast the crown. A temporary crown might then be placed over the tooth while the permanent crown is prepared in a dental lab. On the second visit, the dentist will remove the temporary crown and fasten the permanent one using a special adhesive. This is relatively painless process but it might take some time to get used to the new crown.

Cryosurgery

Cryosyrgery is a method where liquid nitrogen is applied to the growth. Warts treated by cryosurgery result in a sore blister on the affected region of the skin and falls off naturally in a few days.

Dental Bone Grafting Implant

For dental implants to be successful, the jawbone must have enough bone to be able to support the implant once it is inserted. If the bone under the gum is lacking in height, width of both, a Dental Bone Grafting procedure is carried out prior to insertion of the implant (see dental implants). Usually, the patient's own bone is the preferred grafting material versus donor bone. The bone graft is usually taken from the chin or the back of the lower jaw. If this is not possible, then the bone graft is harvested from the hip or shin bone. In the case there is no bone available to be grafted, then synthetic materials can also be used. How it's done: Local anesthesia is used to numb the area where bone is to be augmented to the dental bone as well as the area from where the bone will be grafted. An incision or cut will be first made in the gums around the area where the implant / graft is needed to determine how much and what type of bone graft is needed. If the bone graft is being taken from the chin, the surgeon will make a cut in the gum below the lower front teeth to expose the chin bone and then a block of bone will be removed and the cavity filled with another graft material. The cut is then closed with stitches. The bone graft will then be placed on to the area where it is needed and held in place with titanium screws. A mixture of bone marrow and other material will be placed around the edges of the graft and then covered with a film or membrane over the entire graft. Finally the incision will be closed with stitches.

Dental Checkup

In addition to brushing and flossing your teeth, it is important to make regular visits to the dentist to maintain good oral health. It is recommended that you visit your dentist for a checkup at least once ever 6 months but this can vary based on the patient's unique dental history. How it's done: This involves a physical examination of the teeth by the dentist and is typically followed by cleaning, scaling and polishing. If required, the dentist might also carry out Dental X-ray to rule out cavities or other problems with the teeth.

Dental Cleaning

Dental cleaning involves removing of plaque from the surfaces of your teeth. Plaque is a soft, sticky flim that forms on the surfaces of your teeth over time and contains bacteria. This needs to be periodically removed to avoid further accumulation of bacteria. How it's done: The densist will use specialized instruments to gently remove deposts on the surface of or inbetween adjacent teeth while ensuring that there is structural damage or injury to the teeth themselves and supporting structures such as the gums. To begin with the dentist uses ultrasonic instruments to create vibrations and loosen some of the larger pieces of tartar (deposits). Once this is done, the denstist uses fine tools such as scalers and curettes to scrape off small deposits and smoothen the surfaces of teeth. The dentist might also use fluoride gel or foam to strengthen the teeth after the cleaning is done. Dental cleaning overall is a relatively painless process that does not require any sort of anesthesia.

Dental Fillings

Filling are used to repair broken, cracked or worn-out teeth as well as to treat tooth decay. The filling material is inserted into a hole in the tooth and is most often made of an amalgam or mixture of different metals including mercury, zinc, copper, silver and tin. Fillings can also be white in color for aesthetic reasons, if needed. How it's done: The dentist first uses a local anesthetic to numb the teeth and gums. The dentist will then use hand instruments or a drill to remove decay after which the internal space that will be filled. Then a base or liner material will be filled in to protect the pulp and nerves of the tooth. Then the filling material will be inserted into the cavity. In some cases, the tooth wil be etched to make small holes in the enamel surface using an acid gel and then a composiite material will be used to fill these holes. Since some types of fillings are hardened by the use of special light or radiation, the dentist might periodically stop the filling work to shine this special light onto the tooth to harden it and strengthen the material. Once the filling is complete, the dentist will finish and polish the tooth. Your teeth can feel sensitivity in the tooth following the filling and this should be notified to the dentist.

Dental Implants

Dental Implants are used to replace a single missing tooth or multiple missing teeth. They are fixed, unlike dentures which can be removed. Implants need to be custom designed based on the unique structure of each individual's mouth. A dental implant replaces both the lost tooth as well as its root. Unlike in the case of bridges, implants integrate with your jawbone, thereby helping to keep the bone healthy and intact. How it's done: Implants are inserted through a surgical procedure, a screw-like structure or small cylinder made of titanium usually is first drilled into the jawbone and, once the implant and bone have bonded together to form a sort of anchor for the artificial tooth, an extension is attached and a crown is placed on top of this as a replacement tooth.

Dental restoration

This refers to the various ways in which dentists can replace or repair missing or damaged teeth. The various ways involve dental fillings, crowns, bridges, dental implants, tooth replantation and dentures.

Dental Veneers

Veneers are new frontal surfaces for teeth and are used to disguise discolored teeth. How it's done: A layer of the tooth is first scraped-off and then a thin layer of porcelain is fitted over the front of the tooth which functions a the veneer. This is largely a cosmetic procedure

Dental X-ray

Dental X-ray's are usually carried out as part of a Dental Checkup if deemed necessary. They might be used by the dentist to rule out gum disease, tooth decay, cavities or other dental problems. It is always recommended that you bring along recent past X-ray reports if they exist since, if they are recent enough, the dentist might not need to do another X-ray. This will help prevent unnecessary exposure to X-ray radiation, too much of which can be harmful.

Dental x-ray

Dental X-ray's are usually carried out as part of a Dental Checkup if deemed necessary. They might be used by the dentist to rule out gum disease, tooth decay, cavities or other dental problems. It is always recommended that you bring along recent past X-ray reports if they exist since, if they are recent enough, the dentist might not need to do another X-ray. This will help prevent unnecessary exposure to X-ray radiation, too much of which can be harmful.

Dentures

Dentures are, essentially, false teeth or removable replacements for natural teeth. They can come in a full set, to replace all teeth or a part set to replace one or more missing natural teeth. Dentures are customer-designed using mouldings from your gums and are usually made from plastic or metal. Part set dentures can be brushed along with the rest of your teeth while a full set denture typically needs to be removed and soaked overnight in a special cleaning solution. Dentures serve not only to improve aesthetic appearance but also play a very important functional role in helping you to chew your food which becomes difficult when you lose your natural teeth. Inability to chew food properly can affect your digestive system, diet and also cause a sagging of your facial muscles. How it's done:: The denture development process takes a few weeks and repeat visits to a dentist who specializes in the restoration and replacement of teeth (a prosthodontist). A series of impressions of the jaw are made to create a mould and then a trial denture is cast using this mould. Once this is done, the dentist will try this in your mouth to assess the fit and allow you to gauge the appearance. The shape and colour may be adjusted before the final denture is produced. A complete denture will be fitted as soon as the teeth are removed -- if done well it will fit snugly over the gums and jawbone. The gums will be allowed to gradually heal and take shape of the dentures for several months following the fitting.

Diarrhoea treatment

Diarrhoea causes an increase in the frequency of bowel movements (more than 3 times per day) as well as the consistency of the stool and cane be caused by a number of factors including an infection caused by virus, bacteria or parasites. It can quickly lead to dehydration and electrolyte imbalance and hence it is highly recommended that you drink plenty of water or fluids containing salt and sugar. Diahorrea usually resolves on its own once the body has flushed out the toxins or infection but, in severe cases, it is treated using medication to control bowel movements as well as antibiotics if there is a specific bacteria that is causing it.

Digital mammography

A mammogram is examination of the breast to check for breast cancer in women who have no signs or symptoms of the disease. It can also be used if there is a lump or other signs of breast cancer. Digital mammography is also now available, that allows the radiologist to capture and manipulate the images so abnormalities can be seen more easily. This is especially useful for women with dense fibrocystic breast tissue, as their breasts appear white on a mammogram. This is difficult to differentiate from tumors that are also white. With digital mammograms, the radiologist can manipulate the contrast of the images, making them darker or lighter, allowing for the masses to be identified. The images can also be enlarged on the computer to focus on areas of concern. A 3D mammogram, or tomosynthesis, can also be a valuable tool for screening and diagnosis of breast cancer in women who have dense breasts.

Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (FESS)

Functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) is generally used to treat inflammatory and infectious sinus disease and is the primary approach today for surgical treatment of chronic sinusitis employed when non-surgical treatment has failed to address the symptoms. Since the nasal passages and naturally existing apertures are used to enter the sinus cavity using a magnifying endoscope, this is a miniminally invasive technique that does not require the need for external incisions to enter the sinuses as is the case with conventional sinus surgery. How it's done: A magnifying endoscope is used to enter the sinus cavity to see and remove affected tissue and bone and flush out such infected material and open up blocked passages to allow for better drainage of the sinuses as well as ventilation. It is often combined with a septoplasty and turbinectomy as these could be contributory factors in chronic sinusitis. The procedure is done under general anesthesia or sedation.

Endoscopic Surgery for Cysts

Endoscopic Surgery for cyst removal is surgery to remove a cyst or cysts from one or both ovaries. The surgery uses small incisions and specialized tools and may offer faster recovery times than open surgery. How it's done A small incision is made just below the navel to help insert a laparoscope (a thin tube with a camera on the end). The laparoscope will be used to locate the cyst and using surgical instruments the cyst will be removed.

Endoscopic Surgery for Endometriosis

Endometriosis is tissue growth outside the uterus. These growths often attach to the ovaries or other organs, and may bleed during the period and cause pain. Endometriosis can be treated with medicines or with surgery. The surgery uses small incisions and specialized tools and may offer faster recovery times than open surgery. How it's done: A small incision is made just below the navel to help insert a laparoscope (a thin tube with a camera on the end). If endometriosis or scar tissue needs to be removed, the surgeon will use one of various techniques, including cutting and removing tissue (excision) or destroying it with a laser beam or electric current.

Endoscopic Surgery for Fibroids

A fibroid is a benign (non-malignant) swelling of the muscle cells that make up the uterus. It is a relatively common disorder, affecting 25 - 30% of women. The likelihood of developing them increases with age. Fibroids can vary in size from that of a small pea to that of a large melon. Not all fibroids cause symptoms and many women can have swellings of which they are completely unaware. The type and severity of symptoms are related not only to the size, but also to the position of the fibroids. How it's done: The traditional way to treat large uterine fibroids is to perform an abdominal hysterectomy, but a number of minimal access methods are now available, using endoscopes and/or lasers, which allows the uterus to be preserved

Eyelid Plastic Surgery (Blepharoplasty)

Eyelid Plastic Surgery or Blepharoplasty is a plastic surgery procedure used to reshape the skin around the eyes. In Asia, this is a popular procedure to help create a "double eyelid" from a "single eyelid" or "monolid" that is common among East Asian ethnic groups, by creating a "crease" in the upper eyelid. There are different types of eyelid surgery procedures with the most common being Full-Incisional method, Partial Incision method and non-incision methods.

Gall Stones treatment

Gall stones are small stones that form in the gallbladder (an organ that stores the digestive juice called bile) and are usually made of cholesterol or pigments and can cause sudden and acute abdominal pain if they become trapped in a duct or opening in the gallbladder. In such cases, a keyhole surgery (laparoscopic cholecystectomy) is used to remove the gallbladder, following which the patient is still able to lead a normal life. How it's done: In a laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the surgeon passes surgical instruments and a light with a camera through small cuts made in the belly and removes the gallbladder while viewing a video monitor to guide him. This is an inpatient procedure and is performed under general anesthesia.

Gastritis treatment

Gastritis is inflammation of the stomach lining and can cause stomach pain, nausea, vomiting and a feeling of fullness after meals. It is usually caused by a bacterial, viral or -- in rare cases -- a stomach infection. The H. pylori bacteria is the most common culprit of gastritis. Gastritis can also be caused by excessive intake of alcohol, painkillers or stress. Gastritis is usually treated through medication including antacids (which neutralize the acid in the stomach), histamine 2 blockers (which decrease acid production) and proton pump inhibitors (which decrease acid production, often more effectively than histamine 2 blockers). Lifestyle changes aimed such as eating smaller and more frequent meals, drinking less and managing stress are also used to manage the condition. In the event that the H.pylori bacteria is responsible for the symptoms, combinations of antibiotics are necessary.

Gastro-Oesophageal Reflux Diseases (GERD) treatment

GERD is a digestive disease whereby the acid in the stomach washes back up into the oesophagus (food pipe), causing heartburn or acid reflux. Treatment of this disease depends on the severity of the symptoms and could range from making lifestyle and dietary changes to medications and even surgery. Lifestyle changes: include losing weight, wearing loose clothing, avoiding alcohol, spicy foods and smoking and not eating too close to bedtime. Medication: Antacids (which neutralize stomach acid) and histamine 2 blockers or proton pump inhibitors (both of which decrease acid production) and prokinetics (which help move food down your stomach faster). Surgery: Fundoplication is the most common surgery for GERD. How it;s done: In the fundoplication operation, a surgeon sews the the top of the stomach to the oesophagus so that it wraps around and creates pressure on the upper stomach thereby forcing its contents from coming back up into the oesophagus. This is usually a laproscopic (key hole) surgery performed as an inpatient procedure under general anesthesia.

Gingivoplasty (Gums)

Gingivoplasty involves reshaping of the gum tissue which is also known as gingiva. This could involve removal of postions of the gum tissue, a procedure knows as Gingivectomy. This is typically done to provide better support to the teeth when the gum is affected by disorder or disease (peridontal disease). Typical gum diseases include gum recession or gingivitis which are usually caused by a bacterial infection. Gingiviplasty can also be carried out purely for cosmetic reasons when the gums are oddly shaped or overgrown. How it's done: the peridontist first cleans the teeth and gums to make sure they are clear of plaque and calculus and then use a local anesthetic to numb the area. Then the peridontist removes or reshapes portions of the gum tissue. Once complete, a surgical dressing is used to cover the portion of the gum tissue that has been removed.

Glaucoma Treatment

Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases causing optic nerve damage. The optic nerve carries images from the retina, which is the specialized light sensing tissue that enables people to see. Eye pressure plays a role in glaucoma as it damages the delicate nerve fibers of the optic nerve. If a significant number of nerve fibers are damaged, blind spots may develop. Unfortunately, once visual loss due to nerve damage occurs, it is permanent. One of the leading causes of blindness in the world, especially in older people is Glaucoma. Early detection and treatment is key to prevent optic nerve damage resulting in vision loss. How it works? Depending upon the nature and severity of each case, treatment for glaucoma is prescribed. Glaucoma, in general cannot be cured, but can be controlled. Eye drops, pills, laser procedures, and surgical procedures may be used to prevent or slow further damage from occurring.

Gynaecological Surgery for Pelvic Problems

Pelvic pain is pain that occurs in the pelvic region, the area between the belly button and the groin in the front and between the buttocks at the back. The area mainly consists of reproductive, urinary and digestive systems such as uterus, bladder and intestines. The pain can be acute or chronic and the common causes of pelvic pain are Pelvic inflammatory disease (infection of the reproductive organs), Urinary tract infection, Appendicitis, Ectopic pregnancy (pregnancy that occurs outside the uterus), Twisted or ruptured ovarian cyst, Pelvic floor disorders (spasm or tension in the pelvic floor muscles), Uterine fibroids (non-cancerous uterine growths) etc. How it's done: Treatment for pelvic pain depends on the cause of pain, intensity and frequency of the pain. Surgery is considered for patients with chronic pelvic pain due to endometriosis, pelvic floor disorder, and other chronic pelvic problems. Laparoscopic surgery (removal of endometrial tissue or pelvic adhesion) and Hysterectomy (removal of uterus) are the common surgical options for treating pelvic pain.

Heartburn treatment

Heartburn is a painful burning sensation in the chest and throat that results from stomach acid washing back upwards into the oerophagus (food pipe connecting the mouth with the stomach). Repeated and frequent instances of heartburn might be a sign of Gastro-Oesophageal Reflux Diseases (GERD) ).

Holistic Facial Plastic Surgery (multiple procedures)

Holistic Facial Plastic Surgery is a comprehensive approach to improving one's facial appearance through surgical interventions. Since the overall facial appearance is dependent on balance and symmetry between the various features of the face, some people require a complete facial makeover rather than modifications to only selected features on the face (eg. nose, chin, etc.). In a holistic facial plastic surgery, the plastic surgeon will develop an integrated plan for changing the various features on the face to achieve an overall balance and symmetry that is appealing.

Holistic Rhinoplasty (multiple procedures)

A holistic rhinoplasty procedure uses an integrated approach to improving the shape of the nose to achieve the right level of facial symmetry. Unlike more specific rhinoplasty procedures in which the surgeon only addresses a specific portion of the nose (eg. tip) or a very specific objective (eg. raising the height of the nasal bridge), a holistic rhinoplasty will typically involve reshaping varioous parts of the nose (tip, bridge, alar rims, etc.) to achieve the overall reshaping objectives. For this reason, a holistic rhinoplasty is typically more expensive than a specific rhinoplasty.

Hormone replacement therapy

Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is a treatment used to relieve symptoms of the menopause. It is used to replace female hormones that are at a lower level as the female approach the menopause. The menopause usually occurs when a woman is in her 50s, but some women experience the menopause in their 30s or 40s. Oestrogen and progesterone are female hormones that play important roles in a woman's body. Falling levels cause a range of physical and emotional symptoms, including hot flushes, mood swings and vaginal dryness. The aim of HRT given through prescription medicine is to restore female hormone levels, allowing the body to function normally again.

Hysterectomy Surgery

Hysterectomy is the surgical removal of the uterus, or womb. It is the most common major surgical procedure (unrelated to pregnancy) performed on women in the US. It is a treatment option for uterine cancer and cervical cancer as well as for some benign conditions that cause pain and/or severe vaginal bleeding. Other benign conditions such as Fibroid tumors, severe endometriosis, adenomyosis, uterine prolapse, and uncontrollable vaginal bleeding that are also frequently treated with hysterectomy. How it's done: The method of treatment is dependant upon the reason for the procedure and the underlying medical condition of the patient. Traditional surgical approaches include both abdominal and vaginal hysterectomies, as well as newer, laparoscopic and robotic surgical methods, which significantly reduce operative times and diminish post-operative pain

Incognito Braces

Incognito braces are similar ot traditional braces except for the fact that they are fixed to the back of the teeth to avoid being seen. They are completely custome-made and the brackets are cast in gold rather than stainless steel as is usually the case with traditional braces. Because of the technology and additional degree of customization required, incognito braces can cost more than traditional braces. To reduce cost, these braces are sometimes only used on the front 6 ("social six") teeth that are visible when you smile with traditional braces being used for the other teeth.

Ingrown toe nail treatment

If you have parts of your toe nail grow inwards inside your skin in the surrounding area, it is advicable to remove the overgrown part through surgery. This procedure is performed under local anesthesia

Invisalign Braces

Invisalign braces are alternatives to metal braces that consist of smooth, virtually invisible alignment plastic and customed designed to an individual's teeth configuration. They do not consist of wires or brackets and therefore are preferable for cosmetic or aesthetic considerations. Since there are no wires to be tightened, you have to slide in a new set of aligners every 2 weeks with each one meant to achieve an incremental level of alignment until the final results are achieved.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome treatment

Also known as IBS, this is a common condition that affects the large intestine (colon) causing abdominal pain, cramps, bloating, constipation or diarrhoea. It is usually triggered by diet, stress, hormones or other gastrointestinal diseases which cause the digestive system to behave abnormally. Since this is a chronic condition, treatment focuses on management rather than a cure. It is usually treated through dietary changes, stress management as well as fiber supplements, antispasmodic, anticholinergic or anti-diarrhoeal medications.

Lactose Intolerance treatment

Lactose is a type of natural sugar found in milk and dialry products. Many people are unable to digest lactose as their small intestine does not produce enough of the enzyme lactase which is needed to break down lactose. This can cause gas and bloating and sometime even cause stomach aches. Lactose intolerance, once diagnosed, is primarily treated through dietary changes which aim to limit the consumption of dairy products while compensating for this through inclusion of other calcium-rich foods and also through dietary supplements that help with lactose digestion

Laser Resurfacing

Laser skin resurfacing is a high-precision procedure where laser beams are used to remove upper layers of the skin. A recovery period of typically 10 to 20 days follows, and the new skin formed after recovery is considerable younger and tighter giving your face a younger look.

Lasik Surgery (Laser Eye Surgery)

LASIK (Laser Eye Surgery) is a surgery used to correct vision in people who are nearsighted, farsighted, or have astigmatism. The laser vision correction surgeries work by reshaping the cornea, the clear front part of the eye. This is done so that light traveling through it is properly focused onto the retina located at the back of the eye. LASIK is one of a number of different surgical techniques used to reshape the cornea. How it works? During the surgery, a type of laser is used to create a thin flap in the cornea. This cornea flap is then peeled back without pain and the underlying corneal tissue is reshaped using another laser. After the cornea is reshaped so that it can properly focus light onto the retina, the cornea flap is put back in place and the surgery is complete.

Mammography

A mammogram is typically an x-ray picture of the breast. This is typically used to check for breast cancer in women who have no signs or symptoms of the disease. It can also be used if there is a lump or other signs of breast cancer. Screening mammography is a type of mammogram that is designed to check when there are no symptoms. This type of mammography can help reduce the number of deaths from breast cancer among women ages 40 to 70. However, it may also have drawbacks such as false positives or might miss cancer when it is there. This type of test may also expose the patient to radiation. A doctor should be consulted about the benefits and drawbacks of mammograms a well as the frequency of having mammograms. There can be two types of mammography, digital as well as non-digital mammography.

Management of menopausal problems

Menopause is defined as the time when a woman has naturally ceased having menstrual periods for one year. Not all women experience symptoms prior to or following menopause. Common symptoms if they occur are hot flashes, night sweats, pain during intercourse due to vaginal dryness, and increased anxiety or irritability. How it's done: Lifestyle changes: Healthy diet and regular exercise program is recommended. For vaginal dryness, moisturizers and nonestrogen lubricants such as KY Jelly, Replens, and Astroglide are available. Prescription medication: Treatment with hormone replacement therapy (HRT), a combination of estrogen and progesterone can be prescribed for women who still have their uterus and if they have moderate to severe symptoms of menopause. Estrogen alone is the prescribed regimen for women who have had a hysterectomy (no longer have their uterus).

Menopause Check-up

Most women expect Menopause and recognize the symptoms, however a doctor or gynecologist can also help determine if it is beginning menopause. This life stage usually happens between the ages of 40 and 60 and is likely if there is isn't a period in six months or longer. It's clinically confirmed after 12 full months without a period. Consulting a doctor will confirm a diagnosis and help identify ways to reduce negative symptoms. Vaginal pH levels can also help confirm menopause. During reproductive years, vaginal pH is about 4.5. During menopause, pH rises to about 6. A vagina swab test can confirm pH levels. If there are menopausal symptoms however if there is any doubt that menopause has begun, tests may be conducted to rule out other health problems such as ovarian failure or a thyroid condition. Some of these tests are a blood test to check levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and estrogen, thyroid function test, lipid profile and/or tests for liver and kidney function

Nail fungus treatment

Fungal infection of nails result from poor hygiene and particularly bad cases of fungal infections may be difficult to get rid of without treatment. In most severe cases, removal is nails is recommended, which takes place under local anasthesia. New nail grows in place of the removed nail but the process may take between six months to a year

Nail Removal

Nail removal procedures are performed in cases of actue infection or unnatural growth of nails that impede normal day-to-day activities.

Nasal Endoscopy

Nasal endoscopy is a procedure used to evaluate the nasal and sinus passages using an endoscope which is either a rigid or flexbile tube that has a camera mounted at one end and a light at the other end. It is used to identify any sinus or nasal disease. How it's done: This is simple in-office procedure prior to which the staff will spray the nose with a topical decongestant to make way for the endoscope to enter the nasal and sinus cavities. A topical anesthetic is also applied to numb the nose and minimize any irritation that might cause sneezing. The endoscope is then slowly guided into the nose through the nostrils while the doctor views the live footage on a screen attached to the endoscope.

Nasal Infection Treatment

Nasal infections can be associated with sinus infections when they cause a stuffy nose, discharge from the nasal cavity or a foul smell inside the nose (see Sinus Disorders Treatment). However, nasal infections could also be localized to the nose itself due to bacteria. The most common conditions are nasal vestibulitis and nasal furuncles: Nasal Vestibulitis: this is usually caused by the staphylococcus bacteria which accumulate at the base of the nasal hairs causing pimples which are often red and painful. This occurs just inside the nostrils, also known as the nasal vestibule. This is usually treated using antibacterial ointments that are applied topically or, in more severe cases, through oral antibiotics. If left untreated, this infection can spread to the brain and be life-threatening. Nasal Furuncles: This is a more severe case of infection which results in the formation of painful boils (furuncles) in the nasal vestibule. This condition poses a greater risk of the infection spreading to the brain through the facial veins and so should be treated at the earliest. Typically, oral antibiotics are used and, in some cases, surgery might be required to drain the boils if they don't respond quickly to antibiotics.

Nasal Obstruction Treatment

Nasal obstruction can have a number of different causes including a deviated nasal septum (see Septoplasty), a sinus infection (see treatment for sinus disorders), enlarged turbinates (see turbinectomy), nasal polyps (see polyps treatment) or allergies (see treatment for nasal allergies). The choice of treatment will depend upon the root cause of the nasal obstruction. An ENT doctor will therefore start by examining the nose and evaluating the symptoms to identify the root cause. In some cases, a nasal endoscopy might be required to look inside the nose and identify any structural blockages in the nasal passages.

Non-digital mammography

A mammogram is examination of the breast to check for breast cancer in women who have no signs or symptoms of the disease. It can also be used if there is a lump or other signs of breast cancer. The non-digital mammogram is typically an x-ray picture of the breast. How it works? The mammogram is in front of an x-ray machine. The person who takes the x-rays places the breast between two plastic plates. The plates press the breast and make it flat. This may be uncomfortable, but it helps get a clear picture.

Nose Plastic Surgery (Rhinoplasty)

Nose plastic surgery or rhinoplasty is a type of plastic surgery procedure that is used to change the shape of the nose either for aesthetic or functional reasons, or both. The exact type of rhinoplasty depends on the objectives of the nose reshaping. Reduction rhinoplasty is popular among Caucasians and Middle Eastern ethnic groups and involves removal of bone or cartilage to shrink the overall size of the nose to make it more balanced with the rest of the facial features. In Asian populations, an augmentation rhinoplasty is more popular and helps raise the bridge of the nose and increase tip projection to give the nose a more refined appearance. Augmentation rhinoplasties can be performed using cartilage grafts from the patient's own body or using synthetic implants made from Silicone or Goretex.

Nosebleeds Treatment

Nose bleeds are usually caused by external nasal trauma (eg. a blow to the face) or trauma inside the nose (due to excessive nose picking or repeated sneezing / irritation of the nasal mucosa due to a cold or allergies). Chronic nosebleeds might be associated with an underlying disorder which prevents the blood from clotting properly. Acute nosebleeds can be stopped by nasal packing or cauterization: Nasal packing: the nose is packed with gauze or special nasal sponges to create pressure and stem the bleeding. Cauterization: this method is used if the doctor can pinpoint the exact point from where the bleeding is occuring. It involves cauterizing or burning the blood vessel which is responsible for the bleeding. How it's done: The cauterization is done using a stick of silver nitrate and is usually done under local anesthesia. Nasal packing is a painless process and does not require any anesthesia.

Ocular Prosthesis Surgery (Artifical Eye)

An Artificial (prosthetic) eye may help improve the appearance of people who have lost an eye to injury or disease. This prosthetic eye is commonly called a "glass eye" or "fake eye." This is useful in cases where the entire eye is removed as an ocular implant and prosthesis prevent the tissues in the eye socket from growing to fill the empty space. However, vision cannot be restored in that eye. A prosthetic eye normally is an oval, whitish outer shell finished to duplicate the white color of the other eye with a round, central portion painted to look like the iris and pupil of the other eye How it works? The original eye needs to be removed first through surgical methods such as Evisceration where the jelly-like inside of the eye is suctioned out through an incision in the front of the eye. Other methods include Enucleation where the entire eye (the globe-like "eyeball") is cut away and removed from the eye socket The type of method to be used is determined by the doctor. After removal of the eye, the artificial eye is inserted.

Oral and Maxofacial surgery

This involves the surgical treatment of diseases affecting the mouth, jaws, face and neck. Typical conditions treated by oral and maxofacial surgeons include head and neck cancers, salivary gland diseases, facial structure or proportion problems, jaw disorders, impacted teeth, teeth and jaw joint disorders, jaw tumours and cysts as well as mouth ulcers and inrections.

Orthodontics

Orthodontics is the branch of dentistry that focuses on the alignment of the teeth and the jaws and seeks to create any irregularities created by crooked or misaligned teeth. This is typically done for both cosmetic and functional reasons. Functionally, it helps enhance cleaning of the teeth as well as relieving stresses on the teeth and facial muscles while chewing. In some cases, they can also help address sleep apnea caused by an insufficiently large oral cavity. How it's done: Orthdontic treatment can be carried our using many different types of applications or devices including fixed onces (braces, fixed space maintainers), removable ones (aligners, removal space maintainers, lip and cheek bumpers, jaw repositioning appliances, palatal expanders, removable retainers and even headgear.

Paediatric dentistry

This a branch of dentistry that specializes in oral health for children (ranging from infants to adolescents)

Peptic Ulcers treatment

Peptic ulcers refer to ulcers or open sores that develop along the lining of the stomach and small intestine and can cause gnawing stomach pain, indigestion and heartburn. Peptic ulcers usually result from the H. pylori bacteria or excessive use of NSAID (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) painkillers but might also be a result of consuming very spicy food. Treatment depends on the root cause of the ulcers. If H. pylori is responsible, antibiotics are necessary while if condition is a result of execessive NSAID usage, it might require a reduction or change in medication. In all cases, medication such as proton-pump-inhibitors (PPIs) are used to reduce acid production in the stomach and allow the ulcers to heal naturally. If left untreated for long, ulcers can cause several complications such as internal bleeding and performation of the stomach lining which might require emergency care or surgery.

Plastic Surgery

Plastic surgery is a broad term used to refer to all surgical procedures used to reshape or alter any part of the body either to enhance aesthetic appeal or for reconstructive purposes to correct deformities resulting from birth defects, disease or accidents. There are many types of plastic surgery with the most common being facial plastic surgery and body contouring or reshaping. Rhinoplasty (nose plastic surgery), eyelid surgery and facelift surgery are popular facial plastic surgery procedures while breast enhancements, liposuction (fat removal) and buttock enhancements are popular body reshaping plastic surgery procedures.

Polyps Treatment

Polyps are soft, painless, teardrop-shaped growths that are formed on the inner lining of the nose of sinuses. They are not cancerous in nature. If they become large enough they can cause chronic nasal congestion Polyps can be treated using medication and nasal corticosteroid sprays. Corticosteroids can also be administered through injections or orally if the sprays are not effective or unable to reach the polyps. Medication or sprays have to be used continuously, failing which the polyps can return. In more severe cases, surgery might be required to remove the polyps completely (polypectomy). How it's done: A polypectomy is an aoutpatient surgery that uses a suction device to cut and remove soft tissue. For larger polyps and endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) is often performed under general anesthesia and usually as an inpatient procedure.

Post delivery check up

Typically a postnatal check is carried about six weeks after the baby's birth to ensure that the mother is feeling well and are recovering properly. Typically the hospital or midwifery unit would offer the appointment where the baby was born.

Pre-pregnancy assessment

It is recommended that women start seeing an obstetrician before they become pregnant for something called pre-pregnancy or preconception care. It is to ensure that the future parents any hidden illnesses that could affect the pregnancy or chances of becoming pregnant. It can also include advice about exercise, eating, lifestyle and folic acid supplement. There are some studies that show that preconception care can increase chances of becoming pregnant and reduce the risks of miscarriage or birth defects. How it's done: Tests may be run such as blood tests or a Pap smear to ensure that there are no medical conditions that could affect pregnancy or your chances of conceiving. Other tests may be run to test for illnesses such as Chickenpox immunity, STDs etc.

Retinal Detachment Treatment

Retinal detachment occurs when the retina is pulled away from the underlying supportive tissue. Either a part or the entire retina can detach from the back of the eye leading to blurred and/or lost vision. How it works? Surgery is the only treatment for retinal detachment. The goals of surgery are: To reattach the retina and to prevent or reverse vision loss. Most of retinal detachments can be repaired with surgery but it is important to act quickly as probability of good vision being restored is lower the longer surgery is postponed. The timing of the surgery needs to be decided by your doctor based on the result of the retinal exam and the doctor's experience in treating retinal detachment.

Retinal Surgery

Retinal surgery is mainly for retinal detachment. Retinal detachment occurs when the retina is pulled away from the underlying supportive tissue. Either a part or the entire retina can detach from the back of the eye leading to blurred and/or lost vision. How it works? Surgery is the only treatment for retinal detachment. The goals of surgery are: To reattach the retina and to prevent or reverse vision loss. Most of retinal detachments can be repaired with surgery but it is important to act quickly as probability of good vision being restored is lower the longer surgery is postponed. The timing of the surgery needs to be decided by your doctor based on the result of the retinal exam and the doctor's experience in treating retinal detachment.

Root Canal Treatment

Root canal treatment is used to address an infection in the blood or nerve supply of a tooth which is also referred to as the root canal system and is located at the center of the tooth. If such infection is left untreated, it might spread throughout the tooth and the tooth would have to be removed as a result. How it's done: In this procedure, the dentist enters the pulp chamber of the tooth through the crown, removes the infected or inflamed tissue and then fills the canals with a permanent material, typically a material known as gutta-percha. This filling helps prevent contamination and, consequently, another infection. A root canal procedure is often followed up by a permanent filling or crown procedure in order to seal the opening into the tooth root canal.

Root Planning

Root planning is a method used to treat severe gum disease. It is ususally combined with scaling (see scaling & polishing) It aims to remove dental plaque and calculus between the gums and teeth all the way down to the roots of the teeth. It is also involves the cleaning of "periodontal pockets" which are tiny gaps created between the gums the root surfaces of the teeth where bacteria accumulate and cause inflammation. How it's done: The dentist could use an ultrasonic device or a standard scraping tool for this purpose. The dentist will first administer a local anesthetic to numb the gums and roots of the teeth and then scrape away at the gums and root surfaces to remove plaque and calculus. The dentist might then place antibiotic fibers into the periodontal pockets to help healing and impede infection. THe fibers are generally removed a week later. The process is relatively painless.

Routine antenatal care and ultrasound scans

During the pregnancy, a range of tests, including blood tests and ultrasound scans maybe carried out. These tests are designed to check for anything that may cause a problem during the pregnancy or after the birth, check and assess the mother's wellbeing and the baby's development and wellbeing, as well as screen for particular conditions.

Sinus Disorders Treatment

Sinus disorders can cause headaches, facial pain and pressure, breathing problems and even fever when the sinuses become inflamed or infected (sinusitis). Sinus problems can be caused by a number of different factors including trauma-induced damage to the nose and sinuses, a deviated nasal septum or nasal valve collapse. Sinusitis, specifically, is a common condition whereby the sinuses become inflamed. Often this is a chronic condition and, while we do not know exactly what causes it, contributing factors including bacterial infections, allergies or environmental irritants such as pollution or smoke, dental infections as well as anatomical defects such as a deviated septum . Treatment of sinus disorders starts with identifying the root cause or causes of the condition. While medication, corticosteroid sprays, nasal saline washes and decongestants are typically used to treat the condition, surgery might be required if the non-surgical options are inffective or if the underlying cause is found to be an anatomical defect such as a deviated nasal septum. In severe cases, an endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) might be performed to remove infected tissue and clear the sinuses.

Skin Resurfacing and tightening

A person's skin wrinkles with age and numerous factors such as diet, lifestyle, exposure to the sun, and environmental factors determine the extent ot damage. There are multiple procedures to reverse the effect of skin ageing and they are listed as procedures below

Sleep Apnea Surgery

Obstructive sleep apnea is usually treated through non-surgical means such as weight loss, use of a CPAP machine, etc. Surgery is only performed when these methods have proven not be effective. Since obstructive sleep apnea can be caused by a number of structural factors along the upper respiratory airway, there are multiple methods or procedures used as follows: Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP): This is the most common surgery to treat sleep apnea. It removes excess tissue in the throat to widen the airway. Tonsilectomy / Adenoidectomy: This is usually the preferred surgical option for children since their sleep apnea is usually caused by enlarged tonsils or adenoids. Tracheostomy: This is usually the option of last resort in surgical treatment of sleep apnea. It is effective but risky and hence is only performed when other surgical options are found to be ineffective. In this procedure a permanent hole is made in the next, leading into the trachea or windpipe and then a tube with a valve is inserted into this hole to allow air to enter when the valve is open. This valve is kept closed during the day and opened at night during which the air can directly bypass its normal route into your trachea and thereby get around the structural obstruction that is causing apnea. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA): This involves using radiofrequency to reduce the size of the tongue and surrounding tissue that might be blocking airflow into the lungs Maxillo-mandibular advancement (MMA): This procedure moves the jaws forward to increase the size of the airway. Palatal implants: This method places small plastic rods into the soft palate to stiffen it. This prevents the tissue from getting flappy and blocking the airway.

Sleep Study (Polysomnography)

A sleep study is a test used to to record what happens while you sleep and is used to identify the root cause of any sleeping problems. The most common sleep study is a polysomnogram which records several body functions during sleep such as brain activity, heart rates, oxygen saturation levels, muscle movements, eye movements, air flow through the mouth and nose, etc. Since breathing-related disorders are a common cause of sleep problems, this test is usually an essential part of the ENT specialty and results can often be interpreted by ENT doctors. How it's done: This test is conducted overnight. The patient is wired up with a number of sensors from head to toe which are all taped on to the body. A light sleep aid might be administered to put the patient to sleep. A technician often monitors the data feeds received from the sensors. If sleep apnea is suspected, the patient might be made to sleep with a CPAP machine at some point during the test to see whether this leads to an alleviation of symptoms. This is a painless procedure but can be uncomfortable for some.

Sterilisation Surgery

Female sterilization is a permanent procedure to prevent pregnancy. It works by blocking the fallopian tubes. How it's done: Tubal ligation is a surgical procedure, in which the fallopian tubes are cut and/or sealed. It is sometimes referred to as "getting your tubes tied." This procedure is usually performed using minimally invasive surgery. There are also nonsurgical methods of sterilization. These procedures use devices placed in the fallopian tubes to seal them. They do not require an incision and are inserted through the vagina and uterus.

Stomach Cancer treatment

Stomach cancer is also known as gastric cancer. There are different types of stomach cancer but in most cases they develop in the cells of the stomach lining. In more rare cases, ti can develop in the lymphatic tissue of the stomach or in the muscle and connective tissue of the stomach wall. It is difficult to diagonse without an examination of ths stomach using an endoscope as it causes a range of symptoms similar to many other less serious stomach conditions. It is treated in the same way that most cancers are, i.e. through chemotherapy, radiation therapy and surgery where there is risk of the cancer spreading.

Stomach Cancer treatment

Stomach cancer is also known as gastric cancer. There are different types of stomach cancer but in most cases they develop in the cells of the stomach lining. In more rare cases, ti can develop in the lymphatic tissue of the stomach or in the muscle and connective tissue of the stomach wall. It is difficult to diagonse without an examination of ths stomach using an endoscope as it causes a range of symptoms similar to many other less serious stomach conditions. It is treated in the same way that most cancers are, i.e. through chemotherapy, radiation therapy and surgery where there is risk of the cancer spreading.

Thyroid Surgery

Thyroid surgery is performed on patients who have problems with their thyroid gland that cannot be treated through non-surgical means. Some examples of thyroid conditions that warrant surgery are cancerous and benign (non-cancerous) thyroid nodules, enlarged thyroid glands (goiters) and hyperactive thyroid glands (hyperthyroidism). There are different types of thyroid surgery depending on the exact condition that needs to be treated. The common types are: 1) Lobectomy: The is performed when only half of the thyroid gland is affected. In such a case, the affected "lobe" is removed (there are 2 lobes). 2) Subtotal Thyroidectomy: This involves removal of most of the thyroid gland, leaving behind only a small part of the gland to retain some of the functions that it performs. This surgery often leads to hyptothyroidism, a condition wherein the thyroid does not secrete enought of the hormones needed by the body (this condition can then be treated by taking hormone supplements). 3) Total Thyroidectomy: This is an extreme form of thyrpid surgery which involves removal of the total thyroid gland. This is only reserved for those cases in which the entire thyroid gland is by nodules or inflammation or in the case o thyroid cancer to remove all the cancerous tissue. How it's done: This surgery is done under general anesthesia. The surgeon makes an incision over the thyroid gland in the neck and removes all or a piece of the thyroid gland. This is a delicate surgery and can take in excess of two hours to complete.

Tonsillectomy (Tonsil removal)

Tonsillectomy is the surgical removal of the tonsils which are 2-oval shaped pads of lymphoid tissue at the back of the throat. This is usually done if the tonsils become infected (tonsillitis) repeatedly leading to a recurring sore throat and if this is not easily treated through non-surgical means such as antibiotics. Tonsils that become too large also need to be removed as they can interfere with breathing. Often, the adenoids (small lumps ot tissue at the back of the nose) are also removed along with the tonsils in a procedure known as adenoidectomy. How it's done: Tonsillectomy is usually an outpatient surgical procedure performed by an ENT surgeon and lasting between 30-45 minutes. It is performed under general anestheria.

Tooth Extraction

Tooth extraction involves the removal of a tooth from its socket which lies in the bone of your jaw. This is typically done in the event that your tooth is damaged to an extent (due to trauma, infection or decay) that cannot be repaired using crowns, fillings or other treatment. Sometimes tooth extraction is needed when you have extra teeth. Prior to deciding on a tooth extraction procedure, your dentist or oral surgeon will take an X-ray to determine the extent of damage to the tooth and also to plan for the extraction. This procedure is typically done under anesthesia (ranging from conscious sedation to general anesthesia). How It's done: There are two types of extractions: Simple extraction: this is the more common extraction method. In a simple extraction, the dentist loosens the tooth with an instrument called an elevator and removes the tooth using forceps. Surgical extraction: this is a more sophisticated procedure and is only used if a tooth may have broken off at the gum line or is yet to grow out of the gums. This is typically done by oral surgeons or, in some cases, by general dentists who are equipped to do so. The doctor makes a small incision in the gum and then removes the tooth and, in some cases, some of the bone surrounding the base of the tooth.

Tooth Extraction

Tooth extraction involves the removal of a tooth from its socket which lies in the bone of your jaw. This is typically done in the event that your tooth is damaged to an extent (due to trauma, infection or decay) that cannot be repaired using crowns, fillings or other treatment. Sometimes tooth extraction is needed when you have extra teeth. Prior to deciding on a tooth extraction procedure, your dentist or oral surgeon will take an X-ray to determine the extent of damage to the tooth and also to plan for the extraction. This procedure is typically done under anesthesia (ranging from conscious sedation to general anesthesia). How It's done: There are two types of extractions: Simple extraction: this is the more common extraction method. In a simple extraction, the dentist loosens the tooth with an instrument called an elevator and removes the tooth using forceps. Surgical extraction: this is a more sophisticated procedure and is only used if a tooth may have broken off at the gum line or is yet to grow out of the gums. This is typically done by oral surgeons or, in some cases, by general dentists who are equipped to do so. The doctor makes a small incision in the gum and then removes the tooth and, in some cases, some of the bone surrounding the base of the tooth.

Tooth Replantation

Tooth replantation is the reinsertion and splinting of a tooth that has been dislodged or knocked-out of its socket. Most permanent tooth replantations are successful when the patient acts quickly (within 2 hours) following the incidence of having their tooth knocked-out ot dislodged. . How it's done: To replant a tooth, the dentist or oral surgeon will first use a local anesthetic to numb the patient's gums. Then the tooth (that has been dislodged) will be reinserted into the socket and anchored there by installing a split made of wire and composite resin (plastic). The split is only temporary and holds the tooth in place for two to six weeks until the tooth becomes stable. If the tooth is rejected, the dentist may then have to attach the tooth to the bone with tissue glue.

Treatment for ear infection

Ear infections are caused due to a cold, throat infection or even allergies which lead to accumulation of fluid in the middle ear. It is common in children but can also occur in adults, especially those with compromised immune systems. This can result in ear pain and discharge of yellow pus from the year. Ear infections are usually treated using a course of antibiotics.

Treatment for loss of balance

Balance problems are generally caused by the part of the inner ear that deals with balance (vestibular system). This can be caused by ear infections, medications, head injury, age or anything else that affects the inner year or the brain. Treatment will depend on the root-cause of the symptoms. The different types of balance disorders include: Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) or positional vertigo: This is a brief and severe instance of vertigo experienced due to a specific change in the position of the head. This is usuallly caused by head injury or even age. Labyrinthitis: This is caused by an infection or inflammation / swelling of the inner ear which disrupts the functioning of the vertibular system. It can cause dizziness and even nausea. Ménière's disease: This is characterized by periods of virtigo, hearing loss, tinnitus and a feeling of blockage in the year. Mal de Debarquement syndrome: A feeling of constantly being on a boat out at sea whereby you feel that you are bobbing up and down with the waves. Vestibular neuronitis: a feeling of virtigo caused by an inflammation of the vestibular nerve (usually due to a viral infection). Perilymph fistula: Loss of balance, dizziness and nausea caused by a leakage of inner ear fluid into the middle ear following a head injury or ear injury caused by sudden changes in air pressure (due to diving or flying).

Treatment for nasal allergies

Nasal allergies are also known as allergic rhinitis (hay fever): This is caused by allergens (eg. Pollen, dust, dander or pet hair). Allergic rhinitis is often treated with antihistamines or intranasal corticosteroids and decongestants and by taking measures to prevent exposure to the allergen. Often an allergy test is needed to identify the allergen. Allergy shots or immunotherapy is also used sometimes when exposure to the allergen cannot be avoided easily (as in the case of pollen).

Treatment for nose infection

Nose infections are generally bacterial in nature and can occur inside the nasal cavity or in the sinus cavities. They are usually treated with antibiotics. Recurring infections can be a result of structural or anatomical deformities such as a deviated nasal septum and might warrant surgical intervention

Treatment for Peridontic disease (pyorrhoea)

Pyorrohoea or periodontitis is a common disease that affects the gums surrounding the rooth of the teeth. It is caused by bacteria and leads to inflammation, bad breath and can even lead to discharge of pus. It has also been known to cause inflammation throughout the body and contribute to heart disease and other degenerative diseases. How it's done: If detected early, pyorrohoea can be treated through non-surgical means. Usually a comprehensive approach is taken involving, scaling, root canal treatment, polishing as well as antibiotics administered in the form of pills, fibers and antibacterial mouthwash. For advanced stage pyorrohoea, surgical procedures such as gingivoplasty or gum surgery might be needed.

Treatment for rhinitis (runny nose)

Rhinitis can be allergic, infectios or non-allergic in nature and causes inflammation inside the nose and, often, leads to a runny nose, stuffy nose or sneezing. Infectious rhinitis: this is caused by bacteria or virus and might need to be treated by antibiotics. Allergic rhinitis (hay fever): This is caused by allergens (eg. Pollen, dust, dander or pet hair). Allergic rhinitis is often treated with antihistamines or intranasal corticosteroids and decongestants and by taking measures to prevent exposure to the allergen. Often an allergy test is needed to identify the allergen. Allergy shots or immunotherapy is also used sometimes when exposure to the allergen cannot be avoided easily (as in the case of pollen). Non-allergic rhinitis (vasomotor rhinitis): This encompasses all forms of rhinitis that are not caused by infections or known allergens. It can be treated using nasal saline sprays, decongestants, antihistamines or intranasl corticosteroid sprays.

Treatment for throat infection

A sore throat or pharyngitis is normally caused by a bacterial or viral infection and is commonly caused by the streptococcus bacteria. Usually, this is treated with simple pain medication but, if severe, might require a course of antibiotics. Sometimes sore throat can be a result of more serious conditions such as epiglottitis (inflammation of the epiglottis which is the flap at the back of the throat) or quinsy which is an abcess that develops at the back of throat. For this reason, it is important to get a sore throat investigated if the symptoms are severe. In both these cases, antibiotics are needed to cure the infection. In some cases, throat infections can lead to inflammation of the larynx or voicebox, a condition known as laryngitis (see treatment for throat problems)

Treatment for voice problems

Voice problems can be caused by a number of different factors which affect the larynx or voice box in the throat which is made of cartilage, muscle and mucous membranes; the larynx contains vocal cords which vibrate to produce sound. Some common causes of voice disorders include Laryngitis (inflammation of the larynx), polyps or nodules or cysts that develop on the vocal cords, cancerous lesions that develop on the vocal cords, vocal cord weakness, etc. Risk factors for the above include aging, allergies, cancer, alcohol consumption, Gastro-Oesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD), respiratory track infections, trauma to the neck or throat, screaming, smoking or even stress. In some rare cases, voice problems can be due to neurological disorders. There are three main types of treatment for voice problems. These include: Medication: This involves using medicine to treatment reflux laryngitis (see Gastro-Oesophageal Reflux Diseases (GERD) treatment) or to control hyperthyroidism (see thyroid disorders treatment). Voice Therapy: This is often used by Laryngologists as the first line of therapy for treating voice problems. Surgery: This is the option of last resort when medication and voice therapy have not proved effective in solving the problem. Surgery aims to correct the structure of vocal cords or remove any unwanted growths that appear on the vocal cords.

Treatment of gynaecological infection

Many different gynecological inflammations and infections require the clinical care of a physician or another health care professional. It is very important for a woman to seek medical care to determine the type of infection present and the appropriate treatment. Some of the common gynecological conditions are Vulvitis, Vaginitis, Cervicitis and Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

Treatment of throat cancer

Throat cancer refers to cancer of the voicebox (larynx), the vocal cords, tonsils or the oropharynx (part of the throat located at the back of the mouth). Risk factors for developing throat cancer include tobacco use, excessive alcohol consumption, HPV virus, an unbalance diet or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Like for cancers in other parts of the body, cancer of the throat is treated through radiation therapy, chemotherapy and, in advanced cases, also requires surgery. Surgery might involve removal of a portion of the throat (pharyngectomy), removal of all or a portion of the voicebox (laryngectomy) or removal of cancerous lymph nodes in the throat in case the cancer has spread from the throat into the lymph node tissue.

Tubinectomy

This is a procedure used to remove all or part of the turbinate bones attached to the mucous membranes in the nasal passages. Turbinates are aerofoil like structures that are attached to the nasal sidewall on both sides; they serve to moisten and humidify the air entering the nose by creating turbulatence which is essential for maximizing oxygen absorption once the air enters the lungs. There are ususally 3 sets of turbinates on each side of the nose. The ones closest to the opening of the nostrils (inferior turbinates) can sometimes get enlarged ( a condition known as turbinate hypertrophy) and interfere with breathing. Turbinates can get enlarged due to allergies, exposure to evironmental irritants or even due to a deviated nasal septum. Total removal of the turbinates is not recommended as they play an important role in breathing and removal can cause a condition known as "empty nose syndrome". How it's done: There are different techniques for reducing the turbinates -- submucosal resection involves actually surgically removing the turbinate bones under the mucous membrane. Less radical approaches such as coblation aim to simply debulk or reduce the soft tissue that surrounds the turbinate bone, without touching the bone itself. These are minimally invasive techniques which use radiofrequency waves. This is an outpatient procedure usually done under local or general anethesia. Sometimes this tissue can grow back, requiring repeat procedures (typically years apart).

Visible Braces

Braces are used to correct crooked teeth (also known as malocclusion) or a misaligned bite.They are used not only for cosmetic reasons but also for functional reasons as it helps promote a healthier mouth. There are different types of braces including wire-based ones, bands or other fixed appliances. Traditional braces consist realign teeth by maintaing a constant pressure or resistance. They consist of small brackets cemented to the surfaces of the teeth and connected by wires which are periodically tightened by the dentist to maintain pressure until the desired alignment is achieved. Removable aligners are another option.

Wart / skin growth removal

A wart is a small growth on the top layer of the skin that is caused by a form of virual infection. They are either isolated or may form in clusters. Warts are not malignant, which means they are not cancerous.

Wisdom Tooth Surgery

The wisdom teeth are the final set of molars that develop during adulthood; there are 4 wisdom teeth in total, one on either side of your mouth at the top and bottom. They typically grow between the ages of 17 and 25 years. Often these teeth end up being misaligned or crooked because of a lack of room to grow and can cause damage to surrounding teeth or the jaw bone. Often, wisdom tooth only partially erupt through the gums and this increases the risk of bacteria entering the tooth and infecting it. When the wisdom tooth grows at an abnormal angle or only partially erupts, it is said to be "impacted" and typically need to be removed. As a preventative measure. impacted wisdom teeth are sometimes removed even before they start causing symptoms How it's done: This is a surgical process which is done under anesthesia (local or general) or intravenous (IV) sedation. The surgeon or dentist will then make a cut or incision in the gums around the problematic wisdom tooth and then remove the tooth and, often, some of the bone around the base of the tooth. The cut is then stiched up and the stiches typically dissolve after a few days.